Diesel engine development for reduced emission standards

All vehicles equipped with a diesel engine will be required to substantially reduce their emissions of nitrogen oxides as soon as the Euro 6 standard enters into force. Combined emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from diesel vehicles will also be reduced. It is High time to look at advanced techniques to develop the Diesel Engine in view of the recently reduced emission standards.

Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas after treatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas after treatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. These factors as well as, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed by Waltery Knecht in his recently published research article.

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